This theme builds on the maritime expertise within WMU and focuses on governance issues relating to shipping and particularly navigational rights and freedoms.
International instrument (ILBI) relating to biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)
Oceans are warming and substantial changes to the chemistry of seawater are occurring, including ocean acidification and deoxygenation. These changes severely affect marine environments, habitats and species.
Foundations for claims to maritime jurisdiction, that is the definition baselines and the management of complex and critical ecosystems located at the land/sea interface in the face of increasing developmental pressures and 'coastal squeeze', compounded by the implications of sea-level rise.
Human Rights, Gender Equality, Marine Debris, Blue Economy etc.